Determination of scale formation was conducted in thermogravimetric tests with simulated flue gas atmosphere

NanoZunKonLub – Application of nanoparticle enhanced coatings for scale conditioning in die forging processes in order to optimize the tribological system


  • Scale formation of 1 to 2 % during reheating of the material for die forging process lead to material losses.
  • Surface defects are caused by forged-in scale residues.
  • Wear of dies is caused by highly abrasive properties of the scale.


  • Selection of suitable nanoparticles with properties to minimise scale formation and to condition the scale as a kind of lubricant.
  • Screening of various coating concepts in lab scale and analysis of the amount of scale formed and the influence of the scale on the wear mechanisms of the dies.
  • Analysis and validation of the interdependencies between coating and substrate.
  • Conduction of industrial forging trials.

Operational benefit:

  • Conditioning of scale in order to change its function and allow a utilisation of the conditioned scale as a kind of lubricant during first forming step.
  • Minimisation of scale formation during inductive reheating by 30 %.
  • Minimisation of the wear coefficient by 30 % and increase in service life of the dies (approx. doubled)



OptDeslag – Improved deslagging and slag conditioning

Initial situation: Performance of many metallurgical operations is significantly influenced by the condition of the slag Therefore in some cases […]

InnoKon – Innovative non-stick surface to increase the service life of oxygen lances on the converter

In the converter process, pig iron is converted into crude steel with the addition of oxygen. This is done using […]

OptiReg2 – Heat exchanger

Initial situation: Poor convective heat transfer in through-passages of ceramic honeycomb bodies. Size heat transfer area. Size of the regenerators […]

PROTEUS-RS – Long Product Quality Optimisation through Enhancement and Utilisation of Residual Stress minimising Process Strategies

Situation: During rolling, straightening and thermal processing of long products internal stresses arise impairing the products material properties and causing […]