Determination of scale formation was conducted in thermogravimetric tests with simulated flue gas atmosphere

NanoZunKonLub – Application of nanoparticle enhanced coatings for scale conditioning in die forging processes in order to optimize the tribological system


  • Scale formation of 1 to 2 % during reheating of the material for die forging process lead to material losses.
  • Surface defects are caused by forged-in scale residues.
  • Wear of dies is caused by highly abrasive properties of the scale.


  • Selection of suitable nanoparticles with properties to minimise scale formation and to condition the scale as a kind of lubricant.
  • Screening of various coating concepts in lab scale and analysis of the amount of scale formed and the influence of the scale on the wear mechanisms of the dies.
  • Analysis and validation of the interdependencies between coating and substrate.
  • Conduction of industrial forging trials.

Operational benefit:

  • Conditioning of scale in order to change its function and allow a utilisation of the conditioned scale as a kind of lubricant during first forming step.
  • Minimisation of scale formation during inductive reheating by 30 %.
  • Minimisation of the wear coefficient by 30 % and increase in service life of the dies (approx. doubled)



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